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conclusion of act 4 scene 1 merchant of venice

Portia then says that nothing could be done as laws must be followed. Duke: I am sorry for thee : thou art come to answer A stony adversary, an inhuman wretch At this, Shylock is shocked: Why should he be merciful? With Portia’s pronouncement that the law allows “no jot of blood,” Shylock’s case is lost. Also, he wants Shylock to become a Christian and sign a deed with the condition that upon his death all his property would go to his daughter and son-in-law. Author: Created by TandLGuru. He has been defeated — he, a Jew — in a Venetian, Christian court of law, and as part of his punishment, he has had to agree to become a Christian. Gratiano jeers at the moneylender; now the tables are turned. ACT 4. Merchant of Venice Act 4, Scene 1 Modern English Translation Meaning Annotations – ICSE Class 10 & 9 English. The duke declares that he is waiting for a certain “Bellario, a learned doctor,” to arrive from Padua before he makes a final decision concerning this case. Now, Shylock has lost everything. Thus he says that he is now willing to take Bassanio’s offer of three times the amount of the bond. Bassanio is reluctant to give away the ring and seeing that, Portia acts as if offended and leaves. It is no use; Shylock insists upon having justice carried out according to the law. Portia enters dressed as a doctor of law. The turning point of this act and of the play occurs at line 304: “Tarry a little; there is something else.” Obviously, Shylock has come toward Antonio and now stands with his knife raised to strike, while the group on stage stands transfixed. By asking Shylock to show mercy toward Antonio, the duke provides Shylock with a final opportunity to restate his position and, dramatically, Shakespeare prolongs the suspense of whether or not Shylock will actually demand Antonio’s life. The Merchant of Venice: Act 4, Scene 1 Shylock spends the first half of act 4, scene 1 insisting on obtaining that pound of flesh promised him in the contract. Turning, she leaves. This explains her surprisingly legal coldness; Portia knows exactly what she is doing. Yet, while Shylock is demanding “justice,” Shakespeare makes absolutely clear to the audience that Shylock’s inhumanity, his obsession with revenge, is what motivates his demands. The Duke then asks Antonio to reward them. The clerk of the court then reads aloud the letter from Bellario. Her speech is lost on Shylock. The Merchant of Venice Translation Act 4, Scene 1 Also check out our detailed summary & analysis of this scene Check out our summary & analysis of this scene Unlock with A + Unlock with LitCharts A + Original. Shylock tells him that his reaction does not have to please Bassanio. The Merchant of Venice: Act 4, scene 1 Summary & Analysis New! Antonio knows that mercy is unlikely from Shylock, and Shakespeare tightens the tension of this scene by having Antonio beseech Bassanio to stop trying to win any sympathy from Shylock. The barrier to the true fulfillment of love has been removed. Seeing that he would lose, Shylock says that he should be given thrice the sum and the Christian must be allowed to go. The Merchant of Venice - Act 4 Scene 1 - The Courtroom Scene! She tells Shylock that she has seen sufficient proof that Shylock seeks Antonio’s life both directly and indirectly. 1 Educator answer. Thus, she confirms the “decree established,” and this gives her yet one moment more to think of some new strategy. We now reach the dramatic high point of the play. Shylock is legally entitled to take a pound of Antonio’s flesh — but no more. Both Portia and Nerissa — the Doctor of Law and her clerk of law — comment on this; they doubt that the wives of these loyal friends would “give little thanks” for that offer. Because, Portia answers, “mercy is . However, they ask the two to take something with them. He achieves this at the moment of greatest tension when he allows the drama to slacken for a moment, and we listen in on the little exchange between the disguised wives (Portia and Nerissa) as their husbands declare their love and loyalty for one another; we chuckle when we hear Portia and Nerissa comment on these “last” words between Antonio and Bassanio. He prays to be left alone for the time being and promises to sign the deed later. This is all, and “if the Jew do cut but deep enough,” death will come quickly. Antonio is brought before the Duke and the magnificoes of Venice to stand trial for failing to pay off his obligation to Shylock. It is hard to tell whether the audience were supposed to find Shylocks fate at the end of act 4 scene 1 amusing. Realizing that he is beaten at his own game, Shylock asks for only the amount of the bond — and Bassanio offers it — but Portia points out that all the court was witness to Shylock’s refusing the money. However, he grants half his estate to Antonio and half to the state. This engaging and informative lesson enables students to make clear, detailed and well-informed interpretations of Act IV Scene I of The Merchant of Venice. Both Antonio and Bassanio press Portia to take something; they are both exceedingly grateful for all she has done, and Portia finally agrees to take two tokens as a “remembrance.” She asks for Bassanio’s gloves, and she also asks for his ring. The Editor. Gratiano again appeals to Shylock to have mercy, which he denies. Since this is the central scene of the play and since it turns on our interpretation of Shylock, it follows that the way we see Shylock here determines the way we see the whole play. . As Bassanio prepares to pay him, Portia stops Bassanio. The Duke pardons him to make him see the difference in their thinking of his. Shylock replies that it was not mentioned in the bond and he cannot do anything about it. If that happened, all his property will be confiscated. Love and hate are thematically opposed in this play, and since Shylock is slowly revealed to be the embodiment of hate, there is a satisfying kind of justice in his riches going to a pair of lovers. It is an almost melodramatic touch, giving Shylock’s inhumanity powerful, visible form. And third, the court’s judgment that Shylock become a Christian would have pleased the Elizabethan audience immensely. A judgment is a judgment, and nothing in Antonio’s bond mentioned Shylock’s hiring a physician. … I cannot find it; ’tis not in the bond.” Clearly, Portia is leading Shylock slowly into a trap which he has prepared for himself with his reply to her plea for mercy, “My deeds upon my head! Featuring commentary, analysis and quotes from the Courtroom Scene and the final acts as Antonio is freed, lovers are re-united and Shylock considers his fate. Shylock replies that he has already sworn by his Sabbath that he will take his pound of flesh from Antonio. Shylock tries to leave but Portia accuses him of scheming to take the life of a Venetian. Shylock is left stripped of his daughter, his property, and his religion. He wants it only because of “a lodged hate and a certain loathing” for Antonio. Shylock realizes that he has been foiled. Shylock asks for his principal amount of three thousand ducats but even that is denied to him by Portia. Thus she proceeds with methodical legality — until the last moment, when she says, understatedly, “Tarry a little; there is something else,” words which will reverse the whole situation. The trial scene is known as denouement of the play because it is in this scene that all the complicated events that seem to threaten the happiness of Bassanio, Portia and Antonio are unravelled. Preview. However, he cannot let a drop of Christian blood spill, for if he did so, then by the laws of Venice his lands would be confiscated. Merchant of Venice: Novel Summary: Act 4 Scene 1 This is the scene where Shylock is to take his forfeiture from Antonio. The Duke is upset about the penalty, a pound of Antonio's flesh, but cannot find any lawful way of freeing Antonio from his bond. It was a present from his wife, who made him promise never to part with it. He makes some  more statements and then Bassanio calls him an unfeeling man. Antonio says that he must keep half of Shylock’s property and after Shylock’s death, give it to his son-in-law. . Moreover, now Shylock’s life was at the mercy of the Duke. Portia pretends indignation: She wants “nothing else” but the ring; “methinks I have a mind to it.” She tells Bassanio that he is only “liberal in offers.” He is, in effect, asking her to beg for the ring — an insult. Created: Oct 11, 2018 | Updated: Oct 20, 2018. Moreover, he is asking what is lawfully his and the Duke must award him accordingly. Antonio had been unfortunate enough and now everyone expects Shylock to have mercy on him. Shylock shall have “nothing but the penalty” — “just a pound of flesh” — no more, no less. He is almost struck dumb; “Is that the law?” is all he can ask. Shylock praises the ‘lawyer’ (Portia) for saying, ‘A Daniel come to judgement!’. I crave the law.”. Bassanio says that he was willing to lose all, even his wife, if he could save his beloved friend’s life. Summary of Merchant of Venice Act 4, Scene 1 ICSE Class 10, 9 English. At last, Bassanio yields and sends Gratiano after the lawyer to give him the ring. Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans. William Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice explained with scene summaries in just a few minutes! But law, when it is not tempered with mercy, is, as Shakespeare vividly s’nov/s us, both inhuman and destructive. After Shylock’s exit, the play, which has, at times, come near to tragedy, and which has had, because of Shylock, an element of pathos, reverts completely to the tone of a romantic comedy. It is freely bestowed to temper justice, and those who grant mercy ennoble themselves, especially those people who have the power to dispense punishment and yet award mercy instead. She asks if thrice the money would suffice but Shylock says that he had taken an oath and would not break it. In the introductory speeches by the duke and Antonio, we are reminded of the antithetical positions of the two adversaries. some surgeon … to stop his wounds,” Shylock is appalled at Portia’s lack of legalese: “Is it so nominated in the bond? Questions and Answers from The Merchant of Venice Act 4 Scene 1 by William Shakespeare. The main objective Shakespeare has fulfilled in this scene is exposition of plot and characters. • As Shylock is about to start cutting again, Portia says that the bond does not give him permission to shed Antonio's blood. When Shylock says, “the pound of flesh … is dearly: bought, is mine, and I will have it,” he is not speaking of “rights” anymore; he is demanding his enemy’s blood. The ring was given to him by Portia and Bassanio had promised that he would never part with it. She points out to Shylock that all people “pray for mercy” and “that same prayer” should teach us all to “render the deeds of mercy.”. . Shylock now seems in complete command, secure in the knowledge that, legally, he has bested everyone in the courtroom. There is no denying that the rule of law is necessary. Act 4 : Scene 1 Summary – The Merchant of Venice. He is honest in his vices; they are hypocrites in their virtues.” On this point, we ought to recall three things.^ First, for the Elizabethan audience, Shylock was not just a “characterization”; he was the “villain” of a romantic comedy, and as such, he has to be punished. What are some ironies in The Merchant of Venice, Act 4 Scene 1? She then tells him that Shylock must be merciful. The laws of Venice are such that if any Venetian's blood is shed, all the goods and lands of the perpetrator may be confiscated by the state. This matter is too weighty for one man to render a single opinion on; therefore, Shylock’s demand for judgment will have to wait, and he will have to cease his demand — or else the duke “may dismiss this court.”, Bassanio meanwhile tries to cheer up Antonio, vowing that he himself shall give Shylock his own life in place of Antonio’s “ere [Antonio] shalt loose for me one drop of blood.” Antonio, however, is without hope. He cannot be denied as it will be against the law and it should be followed. Shylock hails the wisdom of this young judge, calling him “noble,” “excellent,” “wise and upright.” He then produces the scales on which he will weigh the flesh, but he balks at Portia’s suggestion that he himself personally pay a physician to attend Antonio to see that he does not bleed to death. The Merchant of Venice Act 1 scene 1 clearly explain the readers about the consequences like: 1- Antonio is a rich merchant whose ships are voyaging across the oceans. Merchant of Venice Act 4 Scene 1 Critical Commentary. Portia tells Shylock that he can have a pound of Antonio’s flesh off his chest. This page contains the original text of Act 4, Scene 1 of The Merchant of Venice. Bassanio then offers Shylock twice the amount. Portia replies that his wife would not be happy to hear of such an offer. He “crave[s] the law” and “the penalty and forfeit of [his] bond.” He does not care that Bassanio has offered him “thrice the sum” of the bond or even “ten times o’er”; Shylock demands the penalty. Translation. Shylock is devastated. The trial of Antonio in a Venetian court of justice begins. Shakespeare\'s original The Merchant of Venice text is extremely long, so we\'ve split the text into one Scene per page. Year Published: 1597 Language: English Country of Origin: England Source: Shakespeare, W. (1597).The Merchant of Venice.New York: Sully and Kleinteich. The duke then asks Shylock a question: “How shalt thou hope for mercy, rendering none?” In reply, Shylock cites the mistreatment of many Venetian slaves by the Venetians themselves, justified by the fact that they bought the slaves and can treat them as they please; likewise, the pound of flesh which he has “dearly bought” belongs to him, and he can do with it as he pleases. The Duke of Venice himself calls Shylock “an inhuman wretch, / Uncapable of pity,” and Antonio characterizes himself as lost — “no lawful means” can save him. She tells Shylock that mercy was the greatest thing that he could have at such a time. The Merchant of Venice Act 4 (Scene 1) Plot Summary with Word Meanings The trial scene of The Merchant of Venice' is the most famous and powerful scene of the play in the whole of English dramas. 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