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seasonal influenza meaning in urdu

by maintaining a distance of at least one meter from someone with symptoms of influenza, and avoiding crowded situations. 2015;21(2):368-71. Neuraminidase inhibitors (i.e. Moreover, immunity from vaccination wanes over time so annual vaccination is necessary for the vaccine to protect against influenza. Find information on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The severity of seasonal influenza depends on the virus, host factors, and other factors, e.g. A shift can occur e.g. © European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) 2020, Questions and answers on seasonal influenza, Facemasks and hand hygiene to prevent influenza transmission in households: a cluster randomized trial Annals of Internal medicine 2009. Pain, burning, scratchiness, or itchiness may occur. Apart from vaccination and antiviral treatment the public health management includes personal protective measures. The cough can be severe and can last 2 or more weeks. Influenza vaccine is most effective when circulating viruses are well-matched with viruses contained in vaccines. Moreover, only influenza type A viruses are responsible for the occasional pandemics. Vaccination is the most effective form of influenza prevention. The diagnosis of seasonal influenza in adults will be reviewed here. All currently circulating influenza viruses are, children aged between 6 months to 5 years, elderly individuals (aged more than 65 years), individuals with chronic medical conditions, Regular hand washing with proper drying of the hands, Good respiratory hygiene – covering mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing, using tissues and disposing of them correctly, Early self-isolation of those feeling unwell, feverish and having other symptoms of influenza, Avoiding touching one’s eyes, nose or mouth. Expert opinion is supportive (Jefferson, 2008) but there have been few randomised trials with laboratory-confirmed influenza as end points (Cowling et al., 2009; MacIntyre et al., 2009). Influenza spreads predominantly via the droplet and contact routes when people cough and sneeze, and by indirect spread through respiratory secretions on hands, tissues, etc. There are also rapid point of care tests (quick test) that require less time. This results in gradual changes of the human seasonal influenza viruses. However, among the elderly, influenza vaccination may be less effective in preventing illness but reduces severity of disease and incidence of complications and deaths. Apart from vaccination and antiviral treatment, the public health management includes personal protective measures like: WHO, through the WHO GISRS system, in collaboration with other partners, monitors influenza activity globally, recommends seasonal influenza vaccine compositions twice a year for the Northern and Southern hemisphere influenza seasons, guides countries in tropical and subtropical areas to choose vaccine formulations (Northern hemisphere vs. Southern hemisphere), to support decisions for timing of vaccination campaigns, and to support Member States to develop prevention and control strategies. Re-assortments are not that rare but only very occasionally lead to a viable influenza A virus, with ability to infect humans, cause disease in humans, cause sustained person-to-person transmission, and for which many or most humans have little or no immunity. 2012; 17(18):pii: 20162. When an infected person coughs or sneezes, droplets containing viruses (infectious droplets) are dispersed into the air and can spread up to one meter, and infect persons in close proximity who breathe these droplets in. It is caused by influenza virus and is easily transmitted, predominantly via the droplet and contact routes and by indirect spread from respiratory secretions on hands, tissues, etc. Uncomplicated seasonal influenza disease presents as rapid onset of the following combination of systemic and respiratory symptoms: Children may also present with gastrointestinal symptoms such as vomiting or diarrhea, apart from fever and respiratory symptoms. Worldwide, these annual epidemics are estimated to result in about 3 to 5 million cases of severe illness, and about 290 000 to 650 000 respiratory deaths. Type A viruses are responsible for the highest burden of disease during seasonal epidemics, although both influenza A and B types are able to cause epidemics, significant disease and deaths. chronic bronchitis);Â, cardiovascular disease (e.g. Antibodies against these glycoproteins are associated with immunity against influenza. People at greater risk of severe disease or complications when infected are: pregnant women, children under 59 months, the elderly, individuals with chronic medical conditions (such as chronic cardiac, pulmonary, renal, metabolic, neurodevelopmental, liver or hematologic diseases) and individuals with immunosuppressive conditions (such as HIV/AIDS, receiving chemotherapy or steroids, or malignancy). Euro Surveill. On average an infectious person will infect less than two non-immune people. Resistance to neuraminidase inhibitors was rare in seasonal influenza until the emergence of resistant seasonal A(H1N1) viruses in 2007-2008 (Moscona, 2005; Meijer, 2009). consist of swabbing the nose and nasal cavity. Starting with the 2013–2014 northern hemisphere influenza season, a 4th component is recommended to support quadrivalent vaccine development. However, when flu is widespread in the community, the diagnosis is often presumed without laboratory testing, by simply identifying patients with typical symptoms of influenza-like illness (ILI).Â. Routine laboratory diagnostics for influenza are usually performed by detecting the virus antigen or genome in specimens from the respiratory tract. The information contained in this factsheet is intended for the purpose of general information and should not be used as a substitute for the individual expertise and judgement of healthcare professionals when it comes to patient care. (Killingley, 2013). The tests performed in laboratories include RT-PCR, enzyme-linked immunoassay, immunofluorescence, and virus culture. The use of these drugs is very variable between European countries (Kramarz et al., 2009), as are the policies.Â. Background Vaccination programmes for H1N1 influenza were introduced between September and Seasonal influenza is characterized by a sudden onset of fever, cough (usually dry), headache, muscle and joint pain, severe malaise (feeling unwell), sore throat and a runny nose. Antibodies to one type or subtype of influenza do not necessarily protect against other influenza virus types or subtypes (so called cross protection). Various guidance on the laboratory techniques is published and updated by WHO. Collection of appropriate respiratory samples and the application of a laboratory diagnostic test is required to establish a definitive diagnosis. Herd immunity (also called herd effect, community immunity, population immunity, or social immunity) is a form of indirect protection from infectious disease that occurs when a sufficient percentage of a population has become immune to an infection, whether through vaccination or previous infections, thereby reducing the … In 2011, a live attenuated influenza vaccine was also approved in the EU for children and adolescents.Â, The European seasonal influenza vaccination approach is generally to reduce the risk of people at greater risk of complications when infected.Â, In 2003 The World Health Assembly, which includes all EU/EEA countries, lent its support to targets for vaccination uptake in the elderly of 50% by 2006 and 75% by 2010. Kramarz P (2009), Monnet D, Nicoll A, Yilmaz C, Ciancio B. Use of oseltamivir in 12 European countries between 2002 and 2007 – lack of association with the appearance of oseltamivir-resistant influenza A(H1N1) viruses. Estimating influenza-related excess mortality and reproduction numbers for seasonal influenza in Norway, 1975–2004. Seasonal influenza viruses circulate worldwide and can affect people in any age group. Estimates of US influenza-associated deaths made using four different methods. The UK is being hit with one of the worst flu seasons in recent decades. Seasonal influenza vaccines shall be compliant with the Ph. However, some countries, such as India and New Zealand, are continuing to experience significant levels of influenza H1N1 (2009), and national authorities in … For many years, WHO has updated its recommendation on the composition of the vaccine (trivalent) that targets the 3 most representative virus types in circulation (two subtypes of influenza A viruses and one influenza B virus). individual factors, type of exposure, and risk associated with the exposure. 2005 Jun 21;2:6. Moscona A (2005) Oseltamivir resistance – disabling our influenza defences. Administration of the drug should also be considered in patients presenting later in the course of illness. Adam Fields DC Recommended for you Once you are a servant, you may be lucky to be called a master of your craft. 2009;3:37-49, Nair H, Abdullah Brooks W, Katz M et al. In terms of transmission, seasonal influenza spreads easily, with rapid transmission in crowded areas including schools and nursing homes. These usually affect most of the countries for one to two months and last in Europe for about four months overall (Paget et al., 2007). Influenza viruses are RNA viruses from the family Orthomyxoviridae, and have a worldwide distribution. Immunity from vaccination wanes over time so annual vaccination is recommended to protect against influenza. The complications can potentially occur in anyone, but hospitalisations are more common in older persons (≥65 years of age, 309/100,000 person-years) (Zhou, 2012) and in the youngest children (<1 year of age, 151/100,000 person-years) (Zhou, 2012). Overall, estimates of influenza morbidity and mortality should be interpreted with caution. Hands should be washed thoroughly with soap and water, and dried. 2nd ed. BMC Infectious Diseases. Patients that are not from a high risk group should be managed with symptomatic treatment and are advised, if symptomatic, to stay home in order to minimize the risk of infecting others in the community. Domnich A, Arata L, Amicizia D, Puig-Barberà J, Gasparini R, Panatto D. Effectiveness of MF59-adjuvanted seasonal influenza vaccine in the elderly: A systematic review and meta-analysis. 0920-1303 Expiration Date: 12/31/2020 This declaration is for tenants, lessees, or residents of residential properties who are covered by the CDC’s order temporarily halting residential evictions (not including foreclosures on home mortgages) to prevent the further spread of COVID-19. Quadrivalent vaccines include a 2nd influenza B virus in addition to the viruses in trivalent vaccines, and are expected to provide wider protection against influenza B virus infections. The virus can also be spread by hands contaminated with influenza viruses. H17-18 and N10-11 have been detected in bats. Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System (GISRS). There are 4 types of seasonal influenza viruses, types A, B, C and D. Influenza A and B viruses circulate and cause seasonal epidemics of disease.. Influenza, acute viral infection of the upper or lower respiratory tract, marked by fever, chills, and a generalized feeling of malaise. 2010; 138(11):1559-68. Nogueira PJ, Nunes B, Machado A, Rodrigues E, Gomez V, Sousa L, et al. The time from infection to illness, known as the incubation period, is about 2 days, but ranges from one to four days. Health care workers are at high risk acquiring influenza virus infection due to increased exposure to the patients and risk further spread particularly to vulnerable individuals. Most people recover from fever and other symptoms within a week without requiring medical attention. Latest surveillance reports and disease data on seasonal influenza; Flu News Europe, Influenza virus characterisation reports, ECDC Surveillance Atlas, Annual Epidemiological Reports. There are a number of other estimates of excess deaths from European countries (Gran et al., 2010; Nogueira et al., 2009; Zucs et al., 2005). Â. But, since 2009 the majority of the circulating influenza A viruses are resistant to the adamantane compounds. When available, either the upper and lower 95% confidence intervals of the different rates have been used to estimate the burden, or the stricter or more inclusive rate estimates. Patients should monitor themselves to detect if their condition deteriorates and seek medical attention Patients that are known to be in a group at high risk for developing severe or complicated illness, (see above) should be treated with antivirals in addition to symptomatic treatment as soon as possible. Microbiology and laboratory reports; External quality assessments, Influenza virus characterisations. cdc:32653[This corrects the article on p. 1293 in vol. Partners and networks working with influenza prevention and control. Influenza viruses are usually classified into three types: A, B and C, according to differences in antigenic and biologic properties. Seasonal epidemics during those years can be more severe than during the years before the pandemic. For at least 40-60 seconds each time, especially after coughing or sneezing. Although vaccination is the preferred option for preventing influenza, antivirals can be useful when the vaccine fails or is unavailable, for example, due to: antigenic mismatch with circulating virus, waning immunity in elderly, patient being immunocompromised, the vaccine not yet available, or during an outbreak of an emerging influenza strain or pandemic. 2012;55(9):1198-204. Due to the high resistance (>99%) adamantanes are no longer recommended. influenza meaning: 1. formal for flu 2. formal for flu 3. flu. Secondly, but of greater economic impact, are the large numbers of mild to moderate cases which result in time off work, losses to production and pressure and costs on the health and social care services.Â. Adults who are admitted to hospitals are often taken to critical care wards and between 3% to 15% die in hospital. WHO works to strengthen national, regional and global influenza response capacities including diagnostics, antiviral susceptibility monitoring, disease surveillance and outbreak responses, and to increase vaccine coverage among high risk groups and prepare for the next influenza pandemic. Influenza is one of the world's greatest infectious disease challenges. In Europe, and the rest of the northern hemisphere, seasonal influenza generally occurs in regular annual epidemics in winter, between November and April. Emerg Themes Epidemiol. Overall, it is hard to control seasonal influenza. Most simple seasonal influenza cases are managed symptomatically and are advised bedrest at home to minimize the risk for infecting others in the community. The influenza virus causes seasonal epidemics of acute illnesses every winter. A number of inactivated influenza vaccines and recombinant influenza vaccines are available in injectable form. Influenza (flu) is a potentially life threatening illness. oseltamivir) should be prescribed as soon as possible (ideally, within 48 hours following symptom onset) to maximize therapeutic benefits. Form Approved OMB Control No. The subtypes are determined by two glycoproteins on the virus surface, haemagglutinin (HA) (H1–H18) and neuraminidase (NA) (N1–N11). Treatment focuses on reducing fever and relieving the symptoms. Type B viruses cause somewhat less severe disease and tend to cause fewer complications than some type A viruses. MacIntyre CR, Epid MA, Cauchemez S, Dwyer DE, Seale H, Cheung P, et al. 2013;7 Suppl 2:42-51. conditions and treatments that suppress the immune function (e.g. In addition, the influenza A and B genome consists of eight separate RNA segments. depend on the nature of the pandemic influenza virus, immunization coverage and pre-existing immunity in the population.Â. Cowling B, Chan K-H, Fang VJ, Cheun CYK, Fung ROP, Wai W. et al. Facemasks and hand hygiene to prevent influenza transmission in households: a cluster randomized trial Annals of Internal medicine 2009; 151: 437-446. Some of the main underlying reasons for this are: imperfect vaccine effectiveness, influenza cases do not always seek healthcare, and  delayed and rare use of antiviral treatment. Viral shedding continues for a somewhat longer period in young children, elderly, and those who have weakened immune systems, compared to adults. Additionally, aerosol transmission plays a part in influenza … access to care. Among healthy adults, influenza vaccine provides protection, even when circulating viruses do not exactly match the vaccine viruses. clinical syndromes of pneumonia, sepsis or exacerbation of chronic underling diseases) should be treated with antiviral drug as soon as possible. This virological surveillance in the EU is of the utmost importance and contributes to the WHO Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System (GISRS) that monitors the evolution of influenza viruses. A total of 664 hospital admissions and 85 confirmed deaths have been reported since the beginning of winter 2017. Early estimates of the excess mortality associated with the 2008-9 influenza season in Portugal. Type C viruses cause some human disease but only comparatively few outbreaks. Influenza A and influenza B cause seasonal epidemics in the United States and elsewhere every winter. In uncomplicated adult cases systemic symptoms usually last a few days. In some cases the disease becomes more severe due to the influenza virus infection or a secondary, usually bacterial, infection e.g. Impact of influenza exposure on rates of hospital admissions and physician visits because of respiratory illness among pregnant women. Corticosteroids should not be used routinely, unless indicated for other reasons (eg: asthma and other specific conditions); as it has been associated with prolonged viral clearance, immunosuppression leading to bacterial or fungal superinfection. WHO recommended surveillance standards, Second edition. individual factors, type of exposure, and risk associated with the exposure. During the influenza surveillance season ECDC and WHO Europe jointly publish weekly updates on influenza in Europe, based on information provided by experts, virologists and medical doctors throughout the wider European region.Â, A global overview is also available from WHO.Â, All age groups are affected, though the proportions of the groups vary from year to year according to the dominating viruses and the level of population immunity.Â, The burden from seasonal influenza has two aspects. The WHO European Region is entering the start of the influenza season, when people are more likely to become ill. It is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in individuals who are at the extremes of age, pregnant, immunocompromised, or have chronic underlying disease. Zhou H, Thompson WW, Viboud CG, et al. Hospitalizations associated with influenza and respiratory syncytial virus in the United States, 1993-2008. Clin Infect Dis. Only type A viruses are able to cause pandemics as they have a reservoir in animals. It is a contagious disease of the respiratory tract caused by influenza viruses. WHO also recommends vaccination of healthcare workers. Read more in Influenza-related deaths - available methods for estimating numbers and detecting patterns for seasonal and pandemic influenza in Europe (Nicoll et al., 2012). Early self-isolation of those feeling unwell, feverish and having other symptoms of influenza. Illnesses range from mild to severe and even death. Dodds L, McNeil SA, Fell DB, et al. Impact of influenza exposure on rates of hospital admissions and physician visits because of respiratory illness among pregnant women. CMAJ. In birds H1-H16 and N1-N9 have been detected. During a typical influenza season it has been estimated that approximately 75% of the seasonal influenza infections are asymptomatic (Hayward, 2014).Â. Type B infections are less common and usually milder than influenza A(H3N2). It may e.g. A number of other viruses and bacteria cause similar symptoms so that much of influenza-like illness (ILI) is not actually caused by influenza. Seasonal influenza is a vaccine-preventable disease and annual influenza vaccination is the most effective way to prevent influenza. 7. Comparative community burden and severity of seasonal and pandemic influenza: results of the Flu Watch cohort study. How to use influenza in a sentence. Despite the often short duration of illness, the yearly economic and healthcare burden of influenza is substantial. • People at higher risk of influenza complications (see “Who is at risk”) are strongly The elderly on average have a greater risk of developing severe complications, such as pneumonia. Influenza season is here; please continue vaccinating through the winter months to prevent flu from spreading further According to CDC, seasonal influenza activity in the United States is high and continues to increase. Sporadic infections occur outside of the influenza season, though the incidence is very low in the European summer when infections may be the result of imported cases from equatorial areas (where transmission is more year round) and the southern hemisphere where most infection takes place between June to October. Paget WJ, Marquet R, Meijer A, van der Velden J. Influenza activity in Europe during eight seasons (1999-2007): an evaluation of the indicators used to measure activity and an assessment of the timing, length and spread across Europe. cerebral palsy); andÂ. through inclusion of HA and NA subtypes from avian or swine origin by re-assortment, i.e. Apart from vaccination and antiviral treatment the public health management includes personal protective measures: It is thought that all of these measures may reduce the risk of transmission of influenza though in fact the evidence base is weak. Overall influenza-associated mortality has been estimated to 13.8 per 100,000 person-years (Thompson, 2003). Epidemics can result in high levels of worker/school absenteeism and productivity losses. There is some evidence supporting that surgical masks worn by ill people may reduce infections among close contacts when influenza is circulating. “The first skill of a great translator is humbleness, to be a servant. Pre-exposure prophylaxis with influenza antivirals can be prescribed for longer or shorter time periods when an exposure is expected, for example in healthcare settings. Ortiz JR, Neuzil KM, Shay DK, et al. The burden of influenza-associated critical illness hospitalizations. Crit Care Med. When hand-washing is not possible, alcohol-based hand sanitisers are an option. Seasonal influenza causes 4 -50 million symptomatic cases in EU/EEA each year, and 15 000 – 70 000 European citizens die every year of causes associated with influenza. This most commonly manifests itself in pneumonia, and at times even death. In most cases, virus is found in specimens from nose and throat from one day before symptom onset to four to five days after onset. But did you know that seasonal flu and pandemic flu are not the same? Thompson WW, Weintraub E, Dhankhar P, Cheng OY, Brammer L, Meltzer MI, et al. However these tests generally have a low sensitivity but high specificity, and do not allow subtype determination. Hayward AC, Fragaszy EB, Bermingham A, et al. Comparative community burden and severity of seasonal and pandemic influenza: results of the Flu Watch cohort study. Lancet Respir Med. Seasonal influenza vaccines are produced either in embryonated hens’ eggs or on a cell culture substrate. alert_06. Firstly there is the severe disease and deaths. Euro Surveill. Influenza is caused by viruses in the family Orthomyxoviridae. The level of antiviral resistance is closely followed by public health authorities. There are 4 types of seasonal influenza viruses, types A, B, C and D. Influenza A and B viruses circulate and cause seasonal epidemics of disease. The burden of influenza-associated critical illness hospitalizations. The most effective way to prevent the disease is vaccination. Alcohol-based hand sanitisers reduce the amount of influenza virus on contaminated hands. Influenza is an acute viral infection that primarily attacks the nose, throat and lungs. Moreover, an EU target was set by the Health Council of all Health Ministers of 75% vaccination coverage by 2014/15 in the older age groups, and if possible extended to people with chronic conditions.Â. At any one time there is a mix of influenza viruses circulating in the human population. 5–20 % of the drug should also be spread by hands contaminated with influenza prevention types: a, E. Vaccines are available and have been recorded for several years and are advised bedrest home... 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